Most Americans are relieved that the international intervention in Afghanistan is winding down more than a decade after 9/11. Can the absence of clear cut victory despite a considerable investment of blood and treasure be attributed to Afghanistan’s reputation as the “graveyard of empires?” Meanwhile, Afghans have suffered 34 years of instability and war. How do they feel about the departure of foreign troops? Are they prepared to assume their own defense? Despite differences in scale, are there clear parallels with the experience of the US in Vietnam nearly 50 years ago? What lessons have we learned from the handling of these these conflicts? Finally, will historians judge the Afghan intervention to have been a success or failure?